Transit of goods in a narrower sense or transit of goods are activities where the freight forwarder, as a rule, performs all the numerous tasks that it normally performs in the organization of delivery (import) and dispatch (export) of goods by ships and continental vehicles. The freight forwarder organizes the delivery of transit goods from one country, which, after taking over (acceptance, receipt), sends to another country.
Special attention should be appplied to:
The terms loading, unloading and transhipment of goods are terms used in the case of sea transport, and loading, unloading and transhipment of goods are terms used in the case of land, means of transport.
Loading-unloading-transhipment operations means a set of measures and operations related to the transport of cargo from the place of dispatch to the destination, and especially with the entry and accommodation (stacking) of cargo in means of transport (or containers), the amount of cargo from means of transport and transfer cargo from one means of transport to another. Each of these actions is part of the overall transportation process.
The default is: boarding → entry, unloading → amount, and transhipment → transfer.
The timeliness of loading-unloading-transhipment operations is important, and the timely undertaking and execution of certain actions that need to be performed within the so-called loading (unloading), unloading (unloading) and transhipment (transshipment) time.
This is actually the range of time required under normal conditions for loading (unloading) or unloading (unloading) a means of transport. This time may be prescribed by law, determined by customs, contracted or determined by the driver.
Three cases should be distinguished:
Time at which to embark or disembark cargo is called stalls, and is calculated in the manner specified in the contract of carriage. After the expiration of the stands, there are overpasses, and they can be:
• certain - if the contract stipulates their duration, after their expiration, they appear over the superiors if they are stipulated by the contract and in otherwise detention occurs
The time at which the wagons are to be loaded or unloaded shall begin to run:
• for loading: from the moment the loading wagon is installed, or from the moment the notice is given
• in case of unloading: from the moment of delivery of the notification of arrival of the goods, ie from the moment of setting up the unloading wagon
• the estimated time is 6 hours, due to the untimeliness of loading and unloading of wagons, the obligation to pay a certain amount of dangubnina arises.
The time at which loading or unloading is to be carried out is determined by the tariff on average for one ton of goods.
Exceeding a certain time for loading or unloading results in the payment of a certain amount of dangubnina (usually calculated per hour exceeded).
Manipulation of goods are activities that promote the circulation of goods during their storage, loading, unloading and other activities.
Special attention should be appplied to:
The concept and purpose of packaging goods
Packaging of goods is the process of placing or wrapping goods in appropriate boxes, containers, wrappers, tubes and various other appropriate materials quality, shape and closure. Packaging of goods can be manual and machine.
The basic purpose of packaging is:
• protect goods from mechanical, chemical, climatic, environmental and other impacts and pollution
• facilitate storage, transport, loading and unloading goods
• present the goods as best as possible to consumers
• better inform the participants in the distribution process about the contents of the packaged goods.
The functions of goods packaging are:
• protective function of the goods (the goods must reach the future owner in in good condition)
• packaging of goods in the function of storage, transport, loading and unloading (goods must be as suitable as possible for storage, transport, loading and unloading) unloading)
• packaging in the function of presenting goods to customers (from art expression and graphic design of the package depends on product promotion)
• information packing function (possibility of identification content of goods).
Palletizing is a system of handling and transporting goods
on appropriate stands or pallets to shape the goods into transport
units suitable for mechanized transmission.
Containerization is, in a broader sense, expensive related technical means and procedures for storage and transport material goods in specially made boxes - containers.
Containerization in the narrow sense is the use of larger or smaller vessels or boxes for the transport of goods for the purpose of homogenising different types of goods in one transport unit which enables the transport of goods “from the manufacturer’s door to the customer's door ”without repackaging.
The obligation of the freight forwarder is to conclude a contract on storage of goods, choice of warehouse, responsibility for stored goods and access to and disposal of stored goods. When the freight forwarder performs the warehousing activity himself, then he is responsible both as a freight forwarder and as a warehouseman. The Freight Forwarder is authorized to store the goods whenever he deems it appropriate to best protect the principal's interests - as required. Except when the principal expressly forbids him to store the goods. The obligation of the freight forwarder is to store the goods, and therefore to conclude a storage contract, as a rule in his own name and on behalf of his client.
The storage of goods is done separately in two cases:
1. If the arrival of the goods at the port cannot be synchronized with the arrival of the ship
2. If the goods need to be sorted, packed, repackaged, mixed or subjected to other manipulations before further shipment.
In order for the freight forwarder to store the goods, he must first choose the appropriate warehouse, and that can be:
• Own Warehouse
• Own Warehouselastito skladište
• A third party warehouse, such as a public warehouse. The freight forwarder is obliged to store the goods primarily in such a warehouse. He is obliged to place the customs goods in a warehouse under customs supervision.
Freight forwarders are required to be well acquainted with the advantages and disadvantages of all forms of rationalization of handling and transport of goods (transport technology - it is estimated that about 70-80% of container traffic is organized and controlled by international freight forwarders).